Nutzungsorientierter konzeptueller Gebäudeentwurf : Modellierungsmethode und Realisierungsansatz

Frank, Matthias Klaus; Russell, Peter (Thesis advisor); Stapenhorst, Carolin Christin (Thesis advisor)

Aachen (2018)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis

Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, 2018

Abstract

The conceptual building design leads to specifications of the building and its use. Design decisions made at this early stage determine the use of the building, and determine its usability. The usability can be defined as the building's support for requested use processes, which consist of a sequence of uses of functions and movements in the building to offered functions. The use processes are described as use cases or scenarios mostly textually and based on building design standards. The requirements are translated by the architect into a building design. A formal review of use requirements is currently focused on specific use cases such as escape route planning or accessibility, and requires Building Information Modeling (BIM) or other specialized design data management. Individual and user role-oriented use cases for an individual building design are at best modeled in the BIM model on the basis of the architect's experience, but are not consistently formalized and can not be simulated computer-aided. The consideration of the requirements for the use of a building – or more abstract of a spatial context – is understood in this work as “building use orientation”. The use orientation in the building design is the subject of the presented work. The considerations of how to formulate the concepts of use orientation in such a way that a model formation based on computer-aided, model-based, methodological approaches allows relevant application in building design, lead to the idea of considering established methods that allow in particular modeling a broad spectrum of the real world, its things and processes: Computer science provides exactly these basics for modeling and a methodical approach. In an interdisciplinary discourse, which combines the support of the use-oriented conceptual building design with the solutions of computer science with regard to the modeling method, a methodical modeling basis for the elaborated requirements of the given problem is selected and a meta-model for the use-oriented conceptual building design is developed as well as a realization approach is proposed, which can be combined with BIM. The methodical approach for application in the building design is part of the modeling method. Two applications are at the forefront of this work: the support of the design of individual and special buildings and the support of the check and diagnosis of a given building. In both applications existing requirements for the use of a building form the starting point for a solution of these tasks. +++ Results: In the context of the discourse on functionalized space and users, the introduction of the concept of use-oriented conceptual building design is a new step towards completing the understanding of modeling of buildings and their use. The formal modeling of the terms building use, building topology, use and use case clearly describes these terms. The application in the design of individual and special buildings as well as in the diagnosis of existing buildings based on formally specified use requirements in the form of use cases are supported by the methodical approach based on models for building use, building topology, use and use cases, which are based on meta-models that are modeled with reference nets. Reference nets are Petri nets. The theoretical contribution to architectural informatics lies in the formally based definition of the concepts of building use, building topology, use and use case, as well as the support of the meta-models and the methodical approach on the basis of the selected realization approach with reference nets. For the choice of a modeling basis the use of BIM with the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is obvious in the current discourse of architectural informatics. The required modeling object of building use with its inherent dynamics is easier to map with Petri nets, as the study of the more general Unified Modeling Language (UML) shows. It is shown that integration possibilities exist between BIM models based on the IFC and the models defined here, which can be implemented in integration tools. Insofar, the work is also a contribution to the discourse on the extension of BIM by the aspect of use orientation and a corresponding expansion of the modeling basis. The review of the usability of a building under the term of Model Checking has been widely discussed and realized in the history. In those approaches a model of the building or a special mapping of the section of interest is formed. The application areas are special. For the first time, the presented modeling method offers the possibility of formally specifying general use requirements in terms of use cases with use sequences in graphical form and to test the building use by simulation. It thus represents a new contribution to the theory with regard to the model basis and a new contribution to the practice of architectural informatics regarding the tool support of the methodological approach.